Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient, meaning the body must obtain it from the diet or supplements since it cannot produce vitamin A on its own. Therefore, the body requires a daily intake of dietary vitamin A to sustain its numerous biological activities and overall health.
When it comes to vitamin A-rich plant-based foods, vegetables and fruits that are yellow, orange, or red are more likely to contain more vitamin A. Since vitamin A is fat-soluble, animal foods with a naturally high-fat content, like eggs, butter, liver, or full-fat dairy, are more likely to contain the nutrient. To discover the best dietary sources of vitamin A, continue reading.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin A
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAE).
AgeMaleFemaleBirth to 6 months400 mcg RAE400 mcg RAE7-12 months500 mcg RAE500 mcg RAE1-3 years300 mcg RAE300 mcg RAE4–8 years400 mcg RAE400 mcg RAE9-13 years600 mcg RAE600 mcg RAE14–18 years900 mcg RAE700 mcg RAE19-50 years900 mcg RAE700 mcg RAE50 and above900 mcg RAE700 mcg RAE
Age, sex, and stage of life are some variables that determine the recommended daily intake of vitamin A. For most adult men, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 900 micrograms (mcg); for adult women, it is 700 mcg. Children require roughly half of what adults need because they are still growing. From birth to 13 years, the vitamin A RDA for children ranges between 400 and 600 mcg.
The Health Benefits of Vitamin A
Vitamin A, along with other fat-soluble vitamins, can pass through fat and accumulate in internal fat or organs, such as the liver. Unlike water-soluble vitamins, they can also penetrate through the cells.
Vitamin A provides numerous health benefits to the human body, such as:
Vitamin A is well-known for being a nutrient that can enhance eyesight. It can not only treat weak eyesight but also enhance night vision, thus reducing the risk of developing night blindness. The presence of retinol and beta-carotene in vitamin A is what helps improve eyesight.
Enhances Immune System
Vitamin A can boost the immune system function by increasing lymphocytic responses. They are antioxidant compounds responsible for fighting disease-causing antigens.
The production and functioning of white blood cells, which assist in removing infectious agents and other pathogens from the bloodstream, depend heavily on vitamin A. As a result, eating a diet high in vitamin A supports the optimal functioning of the immune system.
Improves Dental and Bone Health
Vitamin A deficiency in individuals usually causes periodontitis (gum infection) and gingivitis (gum inflammation), which can further result in cavities and tooth decay. Similarly, a vitamin A deficiency can increase the chance of fractures. Therefore, consuming the recommended amount of vitamin A, protein, calcium, and vitamin D may help protect the bones and lower the risk of fractures.
Improves Skin Health
It is common for all people to experience skin problems like dryness, dullness, wrinkles, and scars. The right amount of vitamin A and its derivative, retinol, can cure such issues and improve skin health.
In the human body, vitamin A can exist in three forms: retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. Retinol is capable of stimulating new cells, boosting collagen production, and providing healthier, firmer, and younger-looking skin. That is why many retinol face serums are now available in the skincare market.
Nourishes and Improves Hair Health
The component beta carotene, in vitamin A, is an essential nutrient that can help improve many tissues like skin, hair, and sebaceous glands. Vitamin A can accelerate hair growth, which they do by activating the stem cells found in hair follicles.
Improves Reproductive Health
Vitamin A is a nutrient that is important in maintaining the health of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis. Moreover, vitamin A, during embryogenesis, is also capable of initiating meiosis in female gonads. Therefore, a regular intake of vitamin A is crucial in enhancing the reproductive health of men and women.
Can Help Lower Cancer Risk
Research has looked into the relationship between vitamin A and various types of cancer because of its involvement in controlling cell growth and differentiation. Consuming more vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene has been related to a lower risk of some cancers, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cervical, lung, and bladder cancer. As per the available data, obtaining sufficient amounts of vitamin A, mainly from plants, is crucial for normal cell division and could potentially lower the chances of developing some cancers.
For optimal reproductive health, the diet must contain sufficient vitamin A levels. Furthermore, a deficit in vitamin A has been connected to poor bone health, and eating enough of this vitamin is essential for healthy bone growth and development. Many vitamin-A-containing medications, such as retinol creams and serum, are frequently used to treat skin issues. Because vitamin A increases WBC formation and function, it is essential for maintaining the body’s natural defences. An uncontrollably growing or dividing abnormal cell mass is what leads to cancer. Since vitamin A is necessary for cell growth and development, its impact on cancer risk and function in cancer prevention is particularly beneficial.
Foods Rich in Vitamin A
There are vegetarian, vegan, and non-vegetarian food items that one can consume to get the recommended amount of vitamin A regularly. Below are the food items to include in the daily diet plan to ensure the body receives the necessary vitamin A.
Carrots, like almost all orange vegetables, are a great source of vitamin A. One medium-sized carrot (about 61 g) contains over 509 µg (RAE) or 10200 IU (international units) of vitamin A. Carrots contain two carotenoids called alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are beneficial for better vision. Carrots also include lutein and zeaxanthin, two antioxidants that improve eye health.
Carrots are a low-calorie, high-fibre food that increases feelings of fullness and satiation. Because carrot fibre has a prebiotic function, it serves as a healthy source of fuel for the friendly bacteria that live in the GI tract.
Sweet potatoes are nutrient-dense foods with significant amounts of manganese, vitamin C, and vitamin A in each serving. 100 g of sweet potato contains 709 g of vitamin A. A roasted sweet potato with skin that weighs 200 grams or one cup contains 213% of the recommended daily intake (DV) of vitamin A.
Sweet potatoes are rich in antioxidants and fibre, which support the development of beneficial gut flora and overall gut health. For most people, it is a fantastic carbohydrate choice that goes well with both sweet and savoury dishes.
Kale has 241 µg of vitamin A per 100 grams. Furthermore, a cup of fresh kale provides more than 20% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin A. Kale also contains antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin, which lower the risk of macular degeneration and other age-related eye diseases. Due to its high magnesium, calcium, and potassium content, kale is one of the foods that can naturally decrease blood pressure.
A 100-gram serving of raw spinach contains 469 µg of vitamin A. Fibre, which is very beneficial, makes up most of the carbohydrates in spinach. Spinach contains numerous plant-based components that can promote health, including lutein, kaempferol, nitrates, quercetin, and zeaxanthin.
One whole tomato has 52.5 µg of vitamin A. However, one cherry tomato has only 7.14 µg of vitamin A. Tomatoes are one of the best sources of vitamins and antioxidants, making them a great addition to one’s daily diet plan. Lycopene, an antioxidant in tomatoes, may offer several health benefits, such as a lower risk of heart disease and better skin health.
One hundred grams of butter contains 684 µg of vitamin A. On the other hand, one tablespoon of salted butter provides 97.1 µg of vitamin A. However, excessive butter consumption can undoubtedly result in weight gain and related health issues, particularly when combined with a high-calorie diet.
One medium-sized egg has 70.4 µg of vitamin A. Two eggs provide 14% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin A. Eggs, in particular, are a good source of choline. While the human body can produce choline, it cannot meet the body’s daily requirements in sufficient proportions. The remaining choline must come via diet.
Milk is a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A. One cup of whole milk provides 78.1 µg of vitamin A. Skim milk has the highest amount of vitamin A (149 micrograms per 1-cup serving). Fortified milk is one way to drastically increase the consumption of vitamin D, which is inadequate in many people.
There are numerous varieties of liver, and the taste and micronutrient content might differ based on the animal and source (grass-fed versus conventional). However, the liver generally has a high iron, vitamin B, and vitamin A content.
Kale has 241 µg of vitamin A per 100 grams, compared to 709 g in sweet potatoes. With 469 µg of vitamin A, spinach is another leafy green alternative. One can obtain 52.5 µg of vitamin A in one whole tomato. Liver, eggs, butter, and cow’s milk are among the everyday items high in vitamin A that are in non-vegetarian meals. There are 684 µg of vitamin A in 100 grams of butter. Plus, a medium-sized egg has 70.4 µg of vitamin A. One cup of whole milk has 78.1 µg of vitamin A in it.
Potential Risks Associated with High Intake of Vitamin A
While vitamin A is essential for your health, it’s important to be aware of the potential risks associated with excessive intake, as it can have adverse effects on your well-being.
Excess Intake of Vitamin A
Consuming too much vitamin A, whether through supplements or high-dose foods, can lead to various health issues. Here are some potential risks to be mindful of:
Nausea and Vomiting: Consuming a large dose of vitamin A, typically over 200,000 micrograms (mcg), can result in symptoms like nausea and vomiting.
Vertigo and Blurry Vision: Excessive vitamin A intake may cause vertigo and blurry vision, affecting your balance and eyesight.
Chronic Intake Effects: Long-term consumption of oral vitamin A supplements exceeding 3,000 mcg daily can lead to serious health problems, including bone thinning, liver damage, chronic headaches, diarrhoea, and persistent nausea.
Skin and Joint Issues: High doses of vitamin A may lead to skin irritation, joint pain, and bone discomfort.
Birth Defects: Pregnant individuals should be especially cautious, as excessive vitamin A during pregnancy can lead to an increased risk of congenital disabilities.
Vitamin A supplements can interact with other medications and compounds, potentially compounding their side effects. Some notable interactions include:
Anticoagulants: If you are taking medications to prevent blood clots, oral vitamin A supplements might increase the risk of bleeding when used concurrently.
Bexarotene (Targretin): Combining vitamin A supplements with this topical cancer drug can heighten the risk of side effects, such as itchy, dry skin.
Hepatotoxic Drugs: High doses of vitamin A supplements can harm the liver. Combining them with other drugs that can damage the liver could elevate the risk of liver disease.
Orlistat (Alli, Xenical): This weight-loss drug can reduce the absorption of dietary vitamin A. If you’re taking Orlistat, your doctor might recommend a multivitamin with vitamin A and beta-carotene.
Retinoids: Avoid simultaneous use of vitamin A supplements and oral prescription retinoid drugs, as this combination may increase blood levels of vitamin A, posing potential health risks.
While vitamin A is crucial for health, excessive intake can lead to adverse effects such as nausea, vision problems, and even congenital disabilities during pregnancy. Long-term overconsumption may result in liver damage, bone issues, and other health complications. It’s vital to maintain a balanced intake of vitamin A and consult with a healthcare professional, especially when considering supplements or if you’re pregnant, to ensure your nutritional needs are met without risking harmful side effects.
As a nutritionist, I understand the concern of creating a balanced meal that is filling, healthy and tasty. But this combination is often associated with boring salads and soups. Well this might be a surprise to people who want to add vitamin A to their diet. Try this Vitamin A packed Sweet Potato Carrot Savoury Pancake recipe.
You need a large bowl where you mix 250g sweet potatoes grated, two finely grated carrots, one finely chopped small onion, ½ lemon, juice, one tablespoon wheat flour, an egg, some black pepper and salt. Next, heat butter in a pan and spoon a large tablespoon of the sweet potato mixture into the middle of the pan. Cook for about 2 minutes on each side until cooked throughout and slightly browned.
Vitamin A mostly comes from two sources: plants and animals. Carrots, sweet potatoes, leafy greens, spinach, tomatoes, green peas, eggs, butter, milk and cheeses, and organ meats like liver are some of the best foods high in vitamin A. Foods rich in vitamin A have several health benefits, such as preserving eyesight, promoting brain function, protecting the skin, assisting in foetal growth and development, and promoting reproductive health.
Disclaimer: The purpose of this article is just to disperse knowledge and raise awareness. It does not intend to replace medical advice from professionals. For further information, please contact our certified nutritionists Here.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q: What is vitamin A, and why is it important for health?
A: Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient that is essential to maintain and enhance healthy vision and improve immunity and skin integrity. It plays a significant role in the metabolic processes, making it vital for overall health.
Q: What are the different forms of vitamin A found in foods?
A: Vitamin A in food items comes in two forms: preformed vitamin A (retinoids), which are in animal products, and provitamin A carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, which are in plant-based sources like fruits and vegetables.
Q: How much vitamin A do adults need in their diet?
A: The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A for adult men is about 900 micrograms of retinol activity equivalents (RAE) per day, while adult women need around 700 micrograms of RAE per day. These values vary depending on various factors like age, gender, and life stage.
Q: What are the potential health benefits of vitamin A?
A: Vitamin A enhances vision, boosts the immune system, promotes skin and tissue health, and contributes to reproductive and bone health. It can also act as an antioxidant, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
Q: Can vitamin A deficiency lead to health problems?
A: Yes, vitamin A deficiency can create a lot of health problems. Some of them include night blindness, weakened immunity, skin issues, dental and bone problems, and reproductive issues.
Q: How does vitamin A contribute to eye health and vision?
A: Vitamin A is essential for maintaining eye health. It is an important component of rhodopsin, which is a light-sensitive pigment in the retina. Vitamin A helps prevent night blindness and support the overall vision in low-light conditions.
Q: Can vitamin A help with immune system function?
A: Yes, vitamin A plays a crucial role in boosting the immune system. They support lymphocytic responses and help the body defend against infections and diseases, thus enhancing the body’s overall immunity.
Q: What is the role of vitamin A in skin and hair health?
A: Vitamin A contributes to skin health by stimulating cell growth and differentiation. They can help address issues like wrinkles and scars, thus promoting a younger and healthier appearance. When it comes to improving hair health, vitamin A accelerates hair growth and supports the function of sebaceous glands.
Q: How does vitamin A affect growth and development in children?
A: Vitamin A is crucial for growth and development in children. It supports various physiological processes, including cell division, bone growth, and immune system development. Adequate vitamin A intake in childhood helps ensure proper growth, development, and overall health.
Q: Are there any potential risks associated with excessive vitamin A intake?
A: Yes, excessive vitamin A intake, typically from supplements, can lead to hypervitaminosis A. Such a condition can cause symptoms like nausea, headache, and dizziness. If the case is severe, it can be toxic, which leads to bone and liver problems, congenital disabilities, and other health issues.
Q: What are the dietary sources of vitamin A?
A: Vitamin A is in various dietary sources, including
Animal Sources: Liver, eggs, fish, and dairy products.
Plant Sources: Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, kale, and other leafy green vegetables, as well as fruits like mangoes, papayas and apricots, which contain carotenoids that the body can convert into vitamin A.
Q: How can vegetarians and vegans ensure an adequate intake of vitamin A?
A: Vegetarians and vegans can ensure adequate vitamin A intake by consuming carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables. They can also consider supplements under the guidance of a healthcare provider to avoid excess intake.
Q: What is the recommended daily intake of vitamin A for children?
A: The recommended daily intake of vitamin A for children varies based on their age. For infants, it’s about 400-500 micrograms of RAE, while children aged 1-18 need 300-900 micrograms of RAE, depending on their age and gender.
Q: What are some common foods that are rich in vitamin A?
A: Common food items that are rich in vitamin A include sweet potatoes, carrots, leafy greens, eggs, and liver.
Q: How does vitamin A play a role in reproductive health and fertility?
A: Vitamin A is essential for both male and female reproductive health. In males, it supports the health of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis, while in females, it plays a role in embryogenesis and the initiation of meiosis in female gonads.